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What are the 4C's?

When buying an engagement ring, many jewellers and experts often refer to the "4 C's" as essential factors to consider when evaluating the quality and value of a diamond. These 4 C's are universally recognised standards for assessing diamonds and are crucial in helping you make an informed decision. The 4 C's are:

  • Carat Weight: Carat is a unit of weight used to measure diamonds and other gemstones. One carat is equivalent to 200 milligrams. As the carat weight increases, so does the size of the diamond, which can significantly impact its cost. Keep in mind that a higher carat weight doesn't necessarily mean better quality. Consider balancing the carat weight with the other C's to find the right balance for your budget and preferences.


  • Clarity: Clarity refers to the presence of internal and external flaws, known as inclusions and blemishes, respectively. These are formed during the diamond's natural growth process. Clarity is graded on a scale, and the most commonly used grading system is as follows (from best to lower quality):
    • Flawless (FL) / Internally Flawless (IF): No inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification.
    • Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1, VVS2): Inclusions are difficult to see under 10x magnification.
    • Very Slightly Included (VS1, VS2): Inclusions are visible under 10x magnification but considered minor.
    • Slightly Included (SI1, SI2): Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification.
    • Included (I1, I2, I3): Inclusions are visible to the naked eye and may affect the diamond's brilliance and durability.

  • Colour: The color grade of a diamond indicates how colourless or white it appears. The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) grades diamonds on a scale from D (colourless) to Z (light yellow or brown). The closer a diamond is to colourless (D, E, F), the more valuable it is. However, some people prefer a slightly warmer diamond in the G to J range, as it can have a more pleasing appearance and potentially save on cost compared to the higher grades.


  • Cut: The cut of a diamond refers to how well it has been shaped and faceted, influencing its brilliance and sparkle. A well-cut diamond reflects light internally from one facet to another and then back out through the top, giving it a captivating sparkle. Cut is graded on a scale from Excellent to Poor. Choosing a diamond with an Excellent or Very Good cut is recommended to ensure maximum brilliance.


Remember that while the 4 C's provide a useful guideline, personal preference and budget should also play a significant role in your decision-making process. Some people might prioritise certain aspects over others to find a ring that perfectly suits their style and financial situation. It's essential to strike a balance between the 4 C's to find the most beautiful and meaningful engagement ring for you and your partner. If you're unsure, please don't hesitate to get in touch.


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